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What is the scope of Pharmacology? Why should we read Pharmacology? Why Pharmacology is an important subject for the medicos? Are you also searching for the answer to these questions? Then you are in right place, here your search for the answers comes to an end. In this post “Scope of Pharmacology,” we are going to discuss the History, Present, and the Future Scopes of Pharmacology Subject.
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What is the Scope of Pharmacology ?
The science of Pharmacology has interfaces with Anatomy and Physiology, Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Microbiology and Pathophysiology. Pharmacology is related to action and uses of drugs. In the development of new drugs, pharmacology has the greatest contribution. It has two main components: pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics deals with what the drug does to the human/animal body. It involves the study of the action of drugs on receptors, its mechanism of action, indications for clinical use, contraindications and adverse reactions caused by drugs. Pharmacokinetics deals with what the body does towards drugs. It has four main components: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME). Out of these four components, absorption, distribution and excretion are dependent on transport through membranes without any chemical change in the entity. In metabolism, there is a chemical change in the moiety because of the action of enzymes in the body. Cytochrome enzymes in the liver are the main metabolising enzymes in the liver. A drug may have n number of metabolites. Every metabolite can have different activities in the body. Thus, what we observe as action(s) of drugs is the net effect of main drug moiety and its metabolites. Several factors can alter the ADME of drugs. It is the main reason why we get different kinds of actions for the same drug in different individuals.
Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics primarily deal with the actions of the drug in human beings. It incorporates indications, therapeutic uses, contra-indications, posology, bioavailability, prescription writing and drug nomenclature. The science of clinical toxicology is an extension of clinical pharmacology. Forensic toxicology addresses to medico-legal aspects of the use of drugs. Pharmacovigilance is gaining vital importance in the last few decades. It involves the study of adverse reactions of drugs and their safety. Based on observations on pharmacovigilance, some drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to severe adverse reactions.
History of Pharmacology
Here in this part we will discuss about the scientist who contributes in the field of Pharmacology and made this subject more useful.
- Galen is known as the Father of Pharmacy. His most popular medicinal invention was Theriac.
- Mahadeva Lal Schroff is known as the Father of Indian Pharmacy because of his contribution to Pharmacy education in India. He introduced a 3-year Pharmacy course at Banaras Hindu University.
- William Procter is known as the Father of American Pharmacy.
- Hippocrates is considered the Father of medicine because of his books on Modern Medicine.
- Oswald Schmiedeberg is known as the Father of Pharmacology. He is the founder of Modern Pharmacology.
- Sir Ram Nath Chopra is considered the Father of Indian Pharmacology.
- Sir James Black is known as the Father of Modern Pharmacology. He developed the drug Propranolol.
- Dr. Frederick Banting and his medical student Charles Best discovered insulin in the year 1921.
- German biochemist Paul Ehrlich Ehrlich coined the term chemotherapy and Magic Bullet concept.
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