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1. Drug Distribution
Once a drug enters the bloodstream, the drug is subjected to a number of processes called Disposition Processes that tend to lower
the plasma concentration. Distribution involves the reversible transfer of a drug between compartments. Elimination which involves irreversible loss of drug from the body. It comprises biotransformation and excretion.
2. Renal Excretion of Drugs
Excretion is defined as the process whereby drugs or metabolites are irreversibly transferred from the internal to the external environment through the renal or non-renal route. Excretion of the unchanged or intact drug is needed in the termination of its pharmacological action.
The principal organ of excretion is the kidney.
3. Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
The term Bioavailability is defined as the rate and extent of absorption of an unchanged drug from its dosage form.
Pharmacokinetics is the field of science that deals with the kinetics of drug absorption, distribution and elimination
• After oral administration:
▪ The drug is absorbed (A) from the site of administration to the systemic circulation
▪ The drug is distributed (D) to all parts of the body
▪ And the drug is eliminated from the body by metabolism and/or excretion (ME)
5. Pharmacokinetics Model
Pharmacokinetic modelling is a mathematical modelling technique for predicting the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of synthetic or natural chemical substances in humans and other animal species.
6. Compartment Modelling
The time course of drug concentration determined after its administration can be satisfactorily explained by assuming the body as a single, well-mixed compartment with first-order deposition processes. In the case of other drugs, two or more body compartments may be postulated to describe mathematically the data collected.
7.Non Linear Kinetics
Michaels Menton equation.
Causes of non-linearity
Detection of non-linearity (saturation mechanism).
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